Cylinder Head 204 - Porting & Polishing
This is a first-generation 1992 1.6L Hyundai Elantra
small-combustion-chamber head. Thats what it is. It's a J1 Elantra
cylinder head. Good luck finding another one like it. (read more)...
In Cylinder Head 106 I talked about the mainstream porting theories as they
are discussed. We looked at a cylinder head that I have thousands of
dollars of professional work performed on, and a bone-stock
second-generation head that I didn't port.
In this video I just might do something you haven't seen done before. For
some, that may be uncomfortable. The port and polish job I perform here is
what I think will work best for my current build. This is not an extreme
killer port job. What will be different here is where port textures are
concerned, I will be following the advice of a reputable source that will
remain un-named. You're free to port yours differently than I do in this
video, and I give you that out, around the 20 minute marker.
The Hyundai is far from being an ultimate-performance build. It's a $400
box of scraps with nothing but time invested. It's perfect for this video.
My finished product WILL be an improvement over what I had. I don't yet
have access to a flow bench. I still have an achievement to un-lock. As
far as you should be concerned with the techniques I employ... without flow
numbers there is no evidence of what this will do, but we will gather lots
of info from dynp sessions and drag strip time slips. If I could test it on
a flow bench, I would.
There are MANY, and when I say many, I mean thousands of flame war
mongering pirates floating around on rough seas with a hair trigger cannon
finger itching to fire if you port a head any differently than what the
herd mentality says to do while porting a cylinder head. I cover the herd
mentality because it has merit. It's been tested. Tried and true. But I
don't follow it to the letter of the law. I'm definitely not here to
de-bunk it. I would port a cylinder head differently for each build based
on how that engine was used. There's an extremely valid reason why
relating to air speed. It's not the texture of a port that maximizes the
effect of fuel atomization, but the velocity of the air running through an
x or y sized valve. The driving factor in this is the piston speed. I'm
not going to give you the technical information, but will refer you to
information about the Lovell factor. There's a better description of this
in the links below, and even a calculator to help you find your engine's
Why the Lovell factor is important:
Lovell gas factor calculator:
Only people who have flow testing equipment know for sure what really works
and have the capability to produce a perfectly-matched port job for the
ultimate performance build. Those guys know the definition of ultimate,
and THEY are floating below the water Aegis-class submarines ready to blow
your comment up if you don't know what you're talking about. They don't
care if you're an armchair mechanic or a herd of pirates. I will say,
they're zoomed in pretty close on me right now, and I'm expecting to take a
few hits. My work will be tested based on Dyno and drag strip performance,
and the results will be posted here. Fortunately, those kinds of videos
are a WHOLE LOT EASIER TO MAKE!!!
Porting wastegate / flapper garrett t3
This is a work on a t3 garret.
the point is to enlarge the flapper hole of the wastegate flapper and
increase the opening angle of this flapper to allow more gas flow.
This mod help to counter the Boost
creep or the runaway of the turbine and the adverse consequences on the turbo and the "breathing" of a stock turbo working at higher pressure that it
was originally made for.
Polishing Aluminum (GSX is alive)
You need a big one that can run for long periods of time. Air tools are
out of the question because the compressors that can keep up with air DIY
grinders use the equivalence of 100 60-watt incandescent light bulbs while
running. Mine uses that much power and it CAN'T keep up. I like
straight-shaft electric tools because they use less power than air tools in
order to do more work. They spin faster and generally have more torque.
Electric drills don't have the RPMs needed to work efficiently because you
need heat from friction for the polishing process. Cordless,
fo'getaboutit. Bench grinders have plenty of speed, but don't make enough
torque. Most bench polishing equipment is built primarily for production,
not detail. If you have to polish large simple pieces, they're fine for
that. The goal is to use a tool that is efficient enough on what you're
polishing to make this seem less like punishment. Quality tools. Dremels
are only good for grinding and sanding tiny detail stuff, but larger
industrial DIY grinders with a .25" chuck are what you need.
Power tools are only acceptable for polishing. Power sanding equipment
doesn't have a random orbit and also doesn't leave a grain to allow you to
gauge how deep to go, so you can't achieve a polishable surface by
mechanical means. You'll also notice that sandpaper for orbital and belt
stuff doesn't go beyond 320 grit and it's expensive. With a power tool you
will inevitably leave marks too deep to remove by wet sanding with 220
grit. You will pay for cheating. Removing casting marks or rough cast
with a flap wheel is not cheating so long as you remove all of the defects
evenly and still thoroughly hand-sand the part afterwards.
Anything goes below 220 grit so long as it's dry. You have to wet-sand
everything higher than 220 grit, so both electric power tools and
non-wet-sanding paper are ruled out beyond that point. The best finishes
are hand-sanded in the crosshatch method shown in this video. If there are
stubborn scratches that your sandpaper won't take out, go to a coarser grit
and work your way back. Step up only one increment in grit with every
grade of sandpaper available until there are no visible scratches in the
surface. Skipping a grit will just mean you have to work 4x as hard to do
the same work. So 220, 320, 400, 600, 800, 1000, etc... Depending on what
grade of aluminum you're working with, you can sometimes get away with
sanding the part only to 600 grit. To get the most out of a shine, you
have to go beyond 1000 grit. The farther you go with the sandpaper, the
less work it will take to polish and maintain.
The black rouge, or emery compound, has an abrasive in it. It's also
considered a cutting compound. It removes material and makes easy work of
oxidation. Because it has an abrasive it can leave directional swirls in
the finish that are visible in some lighting conditions. It's an
extremely-coarse polish but in many cases can produce a brilliant shine.
Brown rouge is a step between black and white. Though unnecessary if
you're using black, brown is less aggressive while still having the ability
to remove scratches and defects. You can also polish wood with it.
White rouge is ideal for precious metals PLUS aluminum. It removes what a
jeweler calls a deep scratch, but what an auto enthusiast may consider
invisible. If there's a scratch that the black rouge didn't take out,
white rouge won't do it. It will however, bring out the most reflective
finish in aluminum that you can achieve mechanically.
Jeweler's rouge (red) is not for aluminum. Neither is blue or green.
Well... blue is universal supposedly. I haven't ever needed it and don't
About polishing wheels:
Polishing wheels come in different textures. For black rouge I use hard or
triple-stitched flannel wheels. The more stitching, the harder it is. The
soft wheels tend to disintegrate quickly. The harder wheels can contribute
to swirl-effects in the finish when they become contaminated.
I can't say enough good stuff about cheap-old Blue Magic metal polish.
Brightens the best white rouge polish jobs and is really easy to work with.
Mothers is good. NEV-R-DULL is an amazing product that lifts and cleans
almost anything out of metal.
Where to get supplies:
You can buy rouge by the pound at truck stops. Lots of great polishing
supplies can usually be found anywhere where you'll find the rigs. Ask a
trucker. Also there's HarborFreight, Eastwood, PJ Tool & Supply, and lots
of others. Everything's within google distance.
Porting an eBay 20g turbocharger
The price of this turbo will make it a
popular purchase, so I figured I'd air out some tech about ways to improve
it. This thing is not for everybody. I wouldn't feel comfortable bolting
it on my car the way it comes out of the box. I could complain about its
flaws except that so far absolutely none of them have been a deal-breaker
for me. To me it's like an empty canvas. I promise to eat those words if
it happens, and share my poop. Usually I can easily correct these flaws
myself and so can you.
If this thing turns out to perform well with what I do to it... It could
easily be a cheap, quick ticket to an 11-second car. Something you could
do with a free running 1g, a hacksaw, and about $500 worth of fuel
upgrades. Yeah, that would be ridiculous, and I'm bolting it onto a
well-modified car... But that being possible speaks volumes for what a DSM
can really do.
This is no big deal to me. I'd rather guinea pig my car for you in HD so
you guys can decide whether or not you'd spend your money on this. Really
it's an experiment because this isn't my daily-driver, and it contributes
to building a better Colt.
Tools I used involve:
Milwaukee model ???? 1/4" straight-shaft electric DIY grinder
Cone and ball-shaped double-cut burs
180 grit high-speed flap wheel
Dremel with a flex-shaft and a tiny 320-grit flap wheel
a zip tie
10mm combination wrench
tiny flat-blade screwdriver (00) for the e-clip on the wastegate
CRANKWALKED? 7-bolt teardown 1080HD
Now this is a story all about how
My bearings got flipped-turned upside down
And I'd like to take a minute just sit right there
And tell you how I used to mix and burn my gas and my air.
In RVA suburbs born and raised
On the dragstrip is where I spent most of my days
Chillin out, maxin, relaxing all cool,
'n all shooting some BS outside with my tools
When a couple of guys who were up to no good
Started running races in my neighborhood
I heard one little knock and my rods got scared
And said "You put it in the garage until you figure out where..."
I Begged and pleaded that it not be that way,
But it didn't want to start and run another day.
I kissed it goodbye, because the motor punched its ticket
I got out my camera, said "I might as well kick it."
Crankwalk yo this is bad
Drinking metal shavings from an oil pan.
Is this what the rumor of crankwalk is like?
Hmm this won't be alright
But wait I heard knocking, grinding and all that
Is this the type of failure that should happen to this cool cat?
I don't think so, I'll see when I get there
I hope they're prepared for this video I share.
Well I pulled all the bolts and when I came out
There were chunks in my fluids in the pan and they drained out
I aint all depressed cause I seen this before.
I got my books and my wrench and we'll do it once more.
I sprang into action like lightning disassembled
I whistled while I worked and my hands never trembled
If anything you could say that this bling is rare,
and when I saw what broke I stained my underwear.
I turned off the air compressor 'bout 7 or 8
And I yelled to crankcase "Yo holmes, smell ya later"
I looked at my internals they were finally there
To sit on my workbench and stink up the air.
Audio track by RojoDelChocolate.
Here's the 48,000 mile-old 7-bolt I blew up summer 2011 after over 150 drag
passes, a half dozen Dyno sessions, 4 transmissions,
3 clutches and 10 years of hard all-weather use.
Porting an aluminum intake manifold, basics of porting and polishing.mpg
Porting and Polishing Basics. Porting on an aluminum intake. A few
principles and techniques for porting. The therory and approach discussed
can be applied to porting most intakes and porting and polishing in
general. Abrasives, carbide burrs, surface finish, porting tools and tips.
Equipment from CC Specialty Tools (ccspecialtytool.com)
Performance Chips - Mythbusted
Can you really get an increase of 35 horsepower using a $20
'Performance Chip' from eBay on your car? And how do they work? In this
episode of Mighty Car Mods, Marty and Moog find out, with some surprising
Stickers, music, magazines and MCM gear:
Discuss this episode here:
Also something to note around Mighty Car Mods: we are normal guys and are
not trained mechanics. We like to make interesting car mods and show you
how we've gone about it, but we can't promise that anything we show you
will work for your particular car, or that you won't harm yourself, someone
else, your car or your warranty doing it. Please be safe, be responsible
and unless you know what you're doing, do not fool around with very serious
machinery just because you've seen us make it look so easy. Talk to a
qualified mechanic if you are in any doubt.
Hyundai Elantra 4g63 Shortblock Assembly
HOLD ON TIGHT! HERE WE GO!
We begin the blueprint and assembly on my 1992 Hyundai Elantra's
bastardized 4g63. The parts used in this are from a mash of different
brands and models outside of the typical 2.0L 4g63, but the specs and
standards I am following for its assembly are for the 2.0L DOHC.
If you want to follow along in your service manual to verify what I've done
here in this video, the processes we cover here detail pages 11C-95 through
11C-105 of the 1g Overhaul manual. I would prefer you not rip them from
the binding and throw them away, relying only on this video for
instruction... but rather use this video as a motivational guide, and as a
demonstration of the techniques involved in those sections.
You gotta do the cooking by the book.
I never had any intention of making instructional videos on this particular
car, but after it blew up I slowly realized it's actually a better case
study for how a 4g63 ticks than anything else in my driveway. There are
several reasons for this. One being that it's a mix of parts that
shouldn't be bolted together, and the other is that many of you watching my
videos aren't trying to build a 600hp engine out of aftermarket parts.
You're trying to put back together what used to be your daily driver. This
car covers those bases. Don't think for a second I won't go through this
same trouble and level of detail for the GSX. I will. When I do, having
this information in this video will give you a better understanding on how
and why I do things the way I do when I get there.
This was the shortest I could condense this video. I've never uploaded a
video this long, and I hope I never have to do it again. It took a month
to create on cutting-edge equipment, 16 hours to export, and 9 hours for
YouTube to process. My script for the voiceover is 6 times longer than the
whole script for the movie Pootie Tang. 6 times. Longer. Than a
Hyundai Assembly 4 - Balancing Rods
I edited this video to its finished state, and RojoDelChocolate handed me a
track with no collaboration that was the right length and rhythm. I
literally did nothing to the video once the audio track was dropped in, and
that's just how it went. I can't believe it. It's like when you're
pumping gas into a Ford F150 full-blast and release the pump handle to stop
right on $80.00 even. He's got more musical talent in his pinky fingernail
than I have mechanical ability in my spleen, appendix and tonsils combined.
Thank you RojoDelChocolate.
Here I'm cleaning up the fly cuts, balancing the piston and rod assemblies
and preparing to double-check my valve clearance. I had to start by
cleaning up and re-lubricating every part that was removed to prevent
contamination of the assembly. This is the tedious part of doing the job
We learned that this whole engine assembly was pretty far-gone in previous
videos, way past its service limits, so making it fit and work again takes
extensive testing, machining, and re-testing to ensure all of the parts
fit. This is likely the most challenging build I will perform on any car
in my driveway. It has been so far. But because I have not demonstrated
the basics of engine balancing beyond what a machine shop has to do to zero
balance a flat-plane crankshaft, I thought I'd give it its own video right
here with one of the test assemblies.
When you balance rods by themselves, you balance the big-end and the
pin-bore separately. You get weights of both ends of the rod using a jig
and a process that I don't demonstrate in this video. The reason you do
this is because the position of the weight behaves differently relative to
its distance from the crankshaft pin. Weight on the big end has less of an
effect than if there's extra weight on the pin bore. The best balanced
engines have every part of the piston and rod assemblies balanced
separately within .1 grams using the method I just described, and not the
method shown in this video.
The method shown here involves weighing ALL of the piston and rod assembly
components together, and then taking out the difference just on the casting
lines of the connecting rod. They were already off-balance and had never
been balanced before. This is an improvement, not perfection. It's still
something this engine needed to have done. I'm not using the
big-end/small-end method here because these pistons are pressed-on and if I
try to remove them from the rod, it will shatter the piston skirts. No
thank you. I'm not replacing these pistons.
The reason I grind down the casting lines is because it's weight is in a
neutral territory, extending from the big end to the small end. It's
easier to take an even amount off when you grind across the entire length
of the rods. This method leaves a lot up to assumption as there's no way
to determine which end of the rod is heavier, or if the weight is in a
wrist pin or piston. All this does is ensure the crankshaft is spinning an
even amount of weight on all 4 of its rod journals. Grams of weight turn
into pounds of force at idle speeds. My goal is to remove that vibration
at any and all rotations per minute if I can. So I make them all the same
within 1.0 grams of their combined weight.
If you're assembling and balancing all NEW parts, not parts that have worn
together and need to go back in the same holes... you will have to balance
the individual parts and pieces. This is the poor man's method. Even with
the new parts you still do the poor man's method once you're done balancing
the individual parts and assemble them, but sometimes when you're lucky
with the new parts, you can just swap around the rods, pins and fasteners
to balance the weights on each assembly and not have to grind anything at
all. That's awfully nice when that happens. You know the Hyundai won't
let me get away with that.
Removing stress risers might help strengthen the rods, but it's not what
I'm after here or else I would have removed the whole casting line from all
of them. These rods should be fine for my goals. My goal is to remove
just enough from all of the fatter rods (weight wise) to match the lightest
Balancing an inline 4 engine with a flat-plane crank is easy if you have
already balanced the crankshaft. This crank was already balanced for the
GSX motor on a previous occasion. It's zero'd out. In order to balance
the rotating assembly, all you do is make the piston and rod assemblies
weigh identically to its neighbors. Just 3 grams of weight can produce
over a hundred pounds of lateral forces at red-line so this is an aspect of
engine building that you should not overlook. All you need to do is get
all of them within 1 gram. The scale I'm using measures whole grams, so
that's all I can do anyway. This method is acceptable for balancing a
rotating assembly as long as you're smart about how to remove the weight.
2g GSX How-To: Attempting turbo swap with WTF ending
Okay. Now I've seen it all. There's an old adage that states "if you want
something done right, you have to do it yourself". Well, this video both
confirms and debunks that theory. A lot of that depends on each person's
definition of "done right". You can't do things by-the-book with
Sheldon bought this car with a pretty full mod list and it ran great at the
time, but by the time we got it to the track, we couldn't beat a 16-second
pass. Despite the laundry list of troubleshooting we both attempted to do
through tuning and testing, we couldn't determine why it was around 4
seconds slower than it should be running. I started having doubts that a
"ported T-28" was what was on the car, and there's no easy way to tell them
apart without removing it so we opted to install a 14b... since plenty of
people easily run 13's with them. Stick around for the plot twist.
Calculate Your Compression Ratio
This is everything you need to do to calculate your compression ratio. No
foolin'. Every equation and process demonstrated. Find all your
variables. Know your exact compression ratio in every cylinder. This is
how you do it.
Just because your service manual says your car is 7.8:1 or 8.5:1
compression doesn't mean that it is. Whenever there are casting
irregularities, variations in piston height, parts that have been machined,
non-OE parts, or changes to your head gasket selection, your compression
ratio WILL change. It's highly probable that you're only CLOSE to spec if
you've never touched your engine at all since it was "born", and that it
doesn't MATCH spec. Even if it did, how would you know? This.
V1 Swept Volume
V2 Deck Volume
V3 Piston-to-deck clearance
V4 Piston dish cc's
V5 Head combustion chamber cc's
The ratio math:
V1+V2+V3+V4+V5 = volume of combustion chamber at BDC
V2+V3+V4+V5 = volume of combustion chamber at TDC
The ratio is...
(V1+V2+V3+V4+V5) ÷ (V2+V3+V4+V5) : (V2+V3+V4+V5) ÷ (V2+V3+V4+V5)
BDC ÷ TDC : TDC ÷ TDC
First you fill in the variables, then you calculate volumes, then you add
the volumes, then you reduce the ratio (fraction). It's that easy.
Here are your magic numbers:
0.7854 = Pi quartered to the ten thousandth
16.387 = number of cc's in a cubic inch.
If you divide any number in cc's by 16.387 it gives you inches. If you
multiply any number in cubic inches by 16.387 it gives you cc's.
Quartering pi lets you use the calculation:
BORE x BORE x STROKE x .7854 = volume of a cylinder
π x (BORE ÷ 2) x (BORE ÷ 2) x STROKE = volume of a cylinder
Either way is right. You get the same result if you calculate pi to the
ten thousandth. While I apologize for all the math, no I don't. I'm
really not sorry. You actually clicked here for it whether you realize it
or not. This is ALL the math, the tests, and the whole process to
calculate your cylinder volumes and compression individually even if you
don't know any of your variables yet. All of my numbers are present for
those who want to calculate out the last 3 cylinders out of curiosity just
to see how it affects cylinder volumes and compression ratios from one
cylinder to the next. Why would I do that for you? Why would I deprive
you of that practice?
Just assume that all 4 of my combustion chambers are 41.75 ml if you do
Clicking like share and subscribe helps a channel grow. It also motivates
me. Don't sweat the camera. It's enough to know that so many of you care
about what I'm doing here. From the bottom of my atmospheric dump, I thank
you all! This gift horse's teeth are all over the place, but he sometimes
poops gold nuggets.
PS: Use ATF for your piston dish volume tests, not alcohol. Of course
it's better just to use the spec sheet included with your pistons... but
not everyone gets that luxury. Water is just fine for head combustion
chamber tests. Dry and re-oil all parts that water touches.