Volkswagen bus

2011 san diego international auto show the volkswagen bus provided by the san diego air cooled syndicate and strictly vintage 2's. these bus were very cool with all the trick stuff. The Volkswagen Type 2, officially known as the Transporter or informally as Bus, was a panel van introduced in 1950 by German automaker Volkswagen as its second car model — following and initially deriving from Volkswagen's first model, the Type 1 (Beetle). As one of the forerunners of the modern cargo and passenger van, The Type 2 gave rise to competitors in the United States and Europe, including the Ford Econoline, Dodge A100, and the Corvair 95 Corvan, the latter adopting the Type 2's rear-engine configuration. As of January 2010[update], updated versions of the Type 2 remain in production international markets — as a passenger van, cargo van, and as a pickup truck. Like the Beetle, the van has received numerous nicknames worldwide, includiing the "microbus", "minibus",[1] "kombi" and, due to its popularity during the counterculture movement of the 1960s, "hippie van". The concept for the Type 2 is credited to Dutch Volkswagen importer Ben Pon. (It has similarities in concept to the 1920s Rumpler Tropfenwagen and 1930s Dymaxion car by Buckminster Fuller, neither of which reached production.) Pon visited Wolfsburg in 1946, intending to purchase Type 1s for import to Holland, where he saw an improvised parts-mover and realized something better was possible, using the stock Type 1 pan.[2] He returned to the factory close the deal, and in a doodle dated 23 April 1947 drew the first sketches of the van.[3] He posited a payload of 690 kg (1,500 lb), with the driver at the very front.[4] Production would have to wait, however, as the factory was having difficulties even maintaining Type 1 output.[4] When this abruptly changed, it took a short three months to produce a prototype,[3] which was known internally as the Type 29. It was soon realized the stock Type 1 pan was too weak, and a ladder chassis with unit body construction was produced, instead;[4] by coincidence, the wheelbase was the same as the Type 1's.[4] Engineers reused the reduction gear originated on the Type 81, enabling the 1.5 ton van to use a 25 hp (19 kW) flat four.[4] Although the aerodynamics of the first prototypes were poor (the original drag coefficient was 0.75),[4] optimisation took place at the wind tunnel of the Technical University of Braunschweig. It was learned simple changes, such as adding a "vee" to the windshield and roofline, made a big difference. The production Type 2 was aerodynamically superior to the Type 1, with a Cd of 0.44, compared to 0.48.[5] Volkswagen's new chief executive officer Heinz Nordhoff (appointed 1 January 1948)[6] approved the van for production 19 May 1949,[4] and the first production model rolled off the assembly line to debut 12 November,[4] now designated Type 2.[5] Only two models were offered, the Kombi (with middle and rear seats that were easily removable by one person, and two side windows)[5] and the Commercial;[4] the Microbus was added in May 1950,[4] joined by the Deluxe Microbus in June 1951.[4] In all, 9,541 Type 2s were produced in the first year.[5] An ambulance model was added in December 1951, which repositioned the fuel tank in front of the transaxle and the spare tire behind the front seat,[5] while adding a "tailgate"-style rear door.[5] These features became standard on the Type 2 from 1955 to 1967.[5] 11,805 Type 2s were built in the 1951 model year.[7] These were joined by a single-cab pickup in August 1952, and it changed the least of the Type 2s until all were heavily modified in 1968.[7] Unlike other rear engine Volkswagens, which evolved constantly over time but never saw the introduction of all-new models, the Transporter not only evolved, but was completely revised periodically with variations referred to as versions "T1" to "T5," although only generations T1 to T3 (or T25 as it is called in Ireland and Great Britain) can be seen as directly related to the Beetle (see below for details). The Type 2, along with the 1947 Citroën H Van, among the first 'forward control' vans in which the driver was placed above the front roadwheels. It started a trend in Europe, where the 1952 GM Bedford CA, 1960 BMC Morris J4, and 1960 Commer FC copied the concept. In the United States, the Corvair-based Chevrolet Corvan cargo van and Greenbrier passenger van went so far as to copy the Type 2's rear-engine layout, using the Corvair's horizontally-opposed, air-cooled engine for power. Except for the Greenbrier and various 1950s-70s Fiat minivans, the Type 2 remained unique in being rear-engined. This was a disadvantage for the early "barndoor" Panel Vans, which couldn't easily be loaded from the rear due to the engine cover intruding on interior space, but generally advantageous in traction and interior noise

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