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Master Hands (1936) Chevrolet Manufacturing

Classic "capitalist realist" drama showing the manufacture of Chevrolets from foundry to finished vehicles. Though ostensibly a tribute to the "master hands" of the assembly line workers, it seems more of a paean to the designers of this impressive mass production system. Filmed in Flint, Michigan, just months before the United Auto Workers won union recognition with their famous sitdown strikes. Selected for the 1999 National Film Registry of "artistically, culturally, and socially significant" films.


 


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Constuction Of The Alaska Highway (1944)
Department of Defense PIN 23086 ALASKA HIGHWAY 1944 CONSTRUCTION OF THE 1,500 MILES OF THE ALASKAN HIGHWAY..





Auto Mechanics: Water Cooled Engines: "Water Boy" 1936 Chevrolet 11min
more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ "A DRAMATIZATION OF THE COOLING SYSTEM OF THE AUTOMOBILE, SHOWING HOW THE WATER CIRCULATES AROUND THE CYLINDERS, COOLING THEM AND IN TURN BEING COOLED BY THE AIR DRAWN IN THROUGH THE RADIATOR." Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine_cooling ...Cars and trucks using direct air cooling (without an intermediate liquid) were built over a long period from the very beginning and ending with a small and generally unrecognized technical change. Before World War II, water-cooled cars and trucks routinely overheated while climbing mountain roads, creating geysers of boiling cooling water. This was considered normal, and at the time, most noted mountain roads had auto repair shops to minister to overheating engines.... ... The subject of boiling engines was addressed, researched, and a solution found. Previous radiators and engine blocks were properly designed and survived durability tests, but used water pumps with a leaky graphite-lubricated "rope" seal (gland) on the pump shaft. The seal was inherited from steam engines, where water loss is accepted, since steam engines already expend large volumes of water. Because the pump seal leaked mainly when the pump was running and the engine was hot, the water loss evaporated inconspicuously, leaving at best a small rusty trace when the engine stopped and cooled, thereby not revealing significant water loss. Automobile radiators (or heat exchangers) have an outlet that feeds cooled water to the engine and the engine has an outlet that feeds heated water to the top of the radiator. Water circulation is aided by a rotary pump that has only a slight effect, having to work over such a wide range of speeds that its impeller has only a minimal effect as a pump. While running, the leaking pump seal drained cooling water to a level where the pump could no longer return water to the top of the radiator, so water circulation ceased and water in the engine boiled. However, since water loss led to overheat and further water loss from boil-over, the original water loss was hidden. After isolating the pump problem, cars and trucks built for the war effort (no civilian cars were built during that time) were equipped with carbon-seal water pumps that did not leak and caused no more geysers. Meanwhile, air cooling advanced in memory of boiling engines... even though boil-over was no longer a common problem. Air-cooled engines became popular throughout Europe. After the war, Volkswagen advertised in the USA as not boiling over, even though new water-cooled cars no longer boiled over, but these cars sold well, and without question. But as air quality awareness rose in the 1960s, and laws governing Exhaust emissions were passed, unleaded gas replaced leaded gas and leaner fuel mixtures became the norm. These reductions in the cooling effects of both the lead and the formerly rich fuel mixture, led to overheating in the air-cooled engines. Valve failures and other engine damage was the result. Volkswagen responded by abandoning their (flat) horizontally opposed air-cooled engines, while Subaru took a different course and chose liquid-cooling for their (flat) engines. Today practically no air-cooled automotive engines are built, air cooling being fraught with manufacturing expense and maintenance problems. Motorcycles had an additional problem in that a water leak presented a greater threat to reliability, their engines having small cooling water volume, so they were loath to change; today most larger motorcycles are water-cooled with many relying on convection circulation with no pump...





Car Transmissions & Synchromesh: "Spinning Levers" 1936 Chevrolet Auto Mechanics 10min
more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ Auto mechanics playlist: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCED11EACAE477F6C '"The transmission in the modern motorcar -- the mechanism that makes it possible to have three forward speeds and a reverse -- is a series of levers, levers that spin." VS cartoon of Archimedes trying to move earth with a lever extending from the moon or another planet in outer space; CU cartoon of Archimedes says "Give me a lever long enough and I can move the world." CU disembodied hands using antique can opener to open a can of peaches; CU can open cutting through top of can. Two boys playing on a seesaw. CU pitch bar tool inserted between train wheel and track; man cranks large lever to move freight car along track; CU disembodied arm pumps lever lifting antique car off ground. VS man demonstrates basics of the lever using triangular piece as fulcrum and a long metal piece, man attaches 10 lbs. weight to one end of the bar and a 5 lbs. weight to the other end; man hangs various weights from both ends of the bar balancing the two by moving the fulcrum to various points along the bar; man demonstrates how a gear is constructed through numerous interlocking levers. VS stop-motion animation of two wheels with paddles added one by one turning wheels into paddle wheels and then into interlocking gears; cuts to more sophisticated gear; cuts to metal gears; VS CU different types of machine gears, worm gears, bevel gears, lopsided gears. Disembodied arm pieces together piece by piece a basic motor with various gear components; superimposed text appears labeling various parts; superimposed arrows identify different gears; motor begins to turn; cuts to CU car drives across frame; cuts back to crude motor; camera pans to Revolutions Per Minute dial which reads 100 rpm, camera pans to another RPM instrument dial which reads 30 rpm; CU crude model of gears in motor, superimposed arrows show flow of energy through the system. CU RPM instrument dial reads 60 rpm; CU churning gears of motor, superimposed arrows she flow of energy through gear system; VS man demonstrates on gears how shifting to various gears works. CU arrow point to 90 rpm on deal labeled Revolutions Per Minute; VS man demonstrating different gears. Great shot 4 lanes of cars stopped at stoplight on city street; Travel Bureau sign in background. CU disembodied hand in white glove shifts clutch of car; CU motor shifting gears; CU tire with Chevrolet hubcap begins to move; 1920s and 1930s cars stopped at traffic light begin to move; CU inside car woman shifts gears; car driving down tree-lined highway in possibly New York, what appears to be the Statue of Liberty is seen off in the distance. Woman enters drivers seat of Chevrolet, man waves start flag; car drives off down street; CU disembodied woman's foot on gas pedal beside break and clutch pedal with Chevrolet logos; CU speedometer shows car hitting 60 mph; CU woman downshifts; CU speedometer goes down to 35 mph; car stops at bottom of hill. CU sign along rugged road 'Steep Hill Use Second Gear"' Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_(mechanics) A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Merriam-Webster defines transmission as: an assembly of parts including the speed-changing gears and the propeller shaft by which the power is transmitted from an engine to a live axle. Often transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device... Manual Manual transmission come in two basic types: - a simple but rugged sliding-mesh or unsynchronized / non-synchronous system, where straight-cut spur gear sets are spinning freely, and must be synchronized by the operator matching engine revs to road speed, to avoid noisy and damaging "gear clash", - and the now common constant-mesh gearboxes which can include non-synchronised, or synchronized / synchromesh systems, where typically diagonal cut helical (or sometimes either straight-cut, or double-helical) gear sets are constantly "meshed" together, and a dog clutch is used for changing gears. On synchromesh boxes, friction cones or "synchro-rings" are used in addition to the dog clutch to closely match the rotational speeds of the two sides of the (declutched) transmission before making a full mechanical engagement...





Auto Body Design: "It's the Top" circa 1936 Chevrolet (with Boeing F4B Airplane) 10min
more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html Opens with film of Boeing F4B (Naval version of Boeing P-12) taking off from aircraft carrier. Then discusses how car bodies, particularly the roofs of Chevys, are made strong (like armored Naval vessels). Ends with deliberately rolling a Chevrolet to show almost no damage to the top of the car. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_P-12 The Boeing P-12 or F4B was an American pursuit aircraft that was operated by the United States Army Air Corps and United States Navy. Design and development Boeing developed the aircraft as a private venture to replace the Boeing F3B and Boeing F2B with the United States Navy that was the first flight of the P-12 took place on 25 June 1928. The new aircraft was smaller, lighter and more agile than the ones it replaced but still used the Wasp engine of the F3B. This resulted in a higher top speed and overall better performance. As result of Navy evaluation 27 were ordered as the F4B-1, later evaluation by the United States Army Air Corps resulted in orders with the designation P-12. Boeing supplied the USAAC with 366 P-12s between 1929 and 1932. Production of all variants totalled 586. Operational history P-12s were flown by the 17th Pursuit Group (34th, 73rd, and 95th Pursuit Squadrons) at March Field, California, and the 20th Pursuit Group (55th, 77th and 79th Pursuit Squadrons) at Barksdale Field, Louisiana. Older P-12s were used by groups overseas: the 4th Composite Group (3rd Pursuit Squadron) in the Philippines, the 16th Pursuit Group (24th, 29th, 74th, and 79th Pursuit Squadrons) in the Canal Zone, and the 18th Pursuit Group (6th and 19th Pursuit Squadrons) in Hawaii. The P-12 remained in service with first-line pursuit groups until replaced by Boeing P-26s in 1934--1935. Survivors were relegated to training duties until 1941, when most were grounded and assigned to mechanics's schools... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body-on-frame Body-on-frame is an automobile construction method. Mounting a separate body to a rigid frame that supports the drivetrain was the original method of building automobiles, and its use continues to this day. The original frames were made of wood (commonly ash), but steel ladder frames became common in the 1930s. It is technically not comparable to newer monocoque designs, and almost no modern vehicle uses it (other than trucks). In the USA the frequent changes in automobile design made it necessary to use a ladder frame rather than monocoque to make it possible to change the design without having to change the chassis, allowing frequent changes and improvements to the car's bodywork and interior (where they were most noticeable to customers) while leaving the chassis and driveline unchanged, and thus keeping cost down and design time short. It was also easy to use the same chassis and driveline for several very different cars. Especially in the days before computer-aided design, this was a big advantage. Most small passenger vehicles switched to monocoque construction in the 1960s, but the trend had started in the 1930s with cars like the Opel Olympia, and Citroen Traction Avant leaving just trucks, some bus manufacturers and large cars using conventional frames. The switch continued for several decades - even small SUVs typically use this construction method today. Body-on-frame remains the preferred construction method for heavy-duty commercial vehicles, especially those intended to carry or pull heavy loads, such as trucks. The Ford Crown Victoria, which was discontinued in 2011 was the last passenger car to be built in this manner. A halfway house to full monocoque construction was the 'semi-monocoque' used by the Volkswagen Beetle and Citroen 2CV. These used a lightweight separate chassis made from pressed sheet steel panels forming a 'platform chassis', to give the benefits of a traditional chassis, but with lower weight and greater stiffness. Both of these chassis were used for several different models. Volkswagen made use of the bodyshell for structural strength as well as the chassis - hence 'semi-monocoque'. The Lincoln Town Car dominates the American limousine market because it is the last American luxury car made with body-on-frame, and therefore easily lengthened for livery work...





Chevrolet Leader News 8
Newsreel produced for General Motors http://www.gregsonline.com





Jaguar Factory Tour - 1961
In 1961, a young man takes a tour of the Jaguar factory in Coventry. He sees how the cars are built and gets a ride in a brand new XK-E.





Auto Suspensions: "Take It Easy" 1936 Chevrolet 8min
more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ 'Dramatization of the spring suspension in the modern automobile, explaining in detail the principle of "knee action." Hot-air balloon tethered to the ground lifts off, ropes dangling from the balloon; VS hot air balloon flying in the air; aerials of the hot air balloon. Camera zooms out from CU of spinning globe in a black set; shot dissolves into an apple with a postage stamp with a ship on it held in disembodied hand. Profile shot man driving woman in car; moving projection in background special effect to make car appear to be moving as in a tracking shot. CU toy model of a car with metal discs for tires filmed in profile in front of moving backdrop with great 1930s futuristic modernist architectural models to give car appearance of movement. Aerial of what appear to be Arizona canyons, probably the Grand Canyon. MS actress dressed as a Southwestern Native American places a grass mat on her head before placing a jar on her head. CU wood wagon wheels riding over rugged dirt road; two frontiersmen in front of covered wagon pulled by horses. Boy pulling a cute little blonde girl in a radio flyer wagon over a brick road; car and old trucks parked along street; MS little girl bouncing in back of the wagon as she tries to eat a piece of bread with jam... Shot antique speed boat numbered 99 races past camera; great shot speed boat bouncing over the swells. Shot of sea sick man in yachting attire walks along rail of ship, projection of tempestuous sea projected as background. Tracking shot upper-class woman trotting on a white horse; wipes to woman ride trotting on a brown horse displaying proper riding technique; CU woman's leg straddling horse bracing herself from the jolts of horse's trot. CU bending leather springs used on old-fashioned coaches; CU stage coach pulled by four horses rides across frame over rocky terrain. Shot man wearing a suit pushing down on carriage with one leg demonstrating the elliptical steel spring suspension of an antique carriage, an improvement from earlier leather springs; CU flexing steel springs of carriage; CU disembodied mans hand squeezes rubber tire of carriage wheel. Shot of antique turn of the twentieth century car, man wearing a suit enters frame carrying a hammer, man hammers the tire demonstrating the improvement of the pneumatic rubber tire for automobiles... hand then touches the hydraulic shock; CU back of antique 1920s car bobbing back and forth; CU front fire of moving car from around 1925 highlighting the first use of balloon tires; great tracking shot man driving down 1920s road through tree-lined rich neighborhood. VS passengers bouncing up and down in back of car as it rides over a bumpy country road; great shot passengers bouncing inside of car. Shot mechanic inspects car stripped of any for of shock absorption, metal discs for tires, not seat cushions, no shocks; passenger enters back seat of car; lamps are installed to face camera from various points in the car... mechanic reinstalls tires, cushions and shocks onto car... three flat lines spread across screen as car moves across frame illustrating smoothness of the ride. Split screen divided horizontally, compares modern 1930s suspensions system with older 1920s steel springs, car on top bounces violently on bumpy road while bottom car rides smoothly over the same bumpy road. CU front of car driving over railroad track, Michigan license plate over car bumper; cuts to track shot of two men doing handstands on hood of the car as one holds men's legs up; two men climb onto the roof of the car and lift woman onto their shoulders...' Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suspension_(vehicle) Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two.[1] Suspension systems serve a dual purpose — contributing to the vehicle's roadholding/handling and braking for good active safety and driving pleasure, and keeping vehicle occupants comfortable and reasonably well isolated from road noise, bumps, and vibrations,etc. These goals are generally at odds, so the tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. It is important for the suspension to keep the road wheel in contact with the road surface as much as possible, because all the forces acting on the vehicle do so through the contact patches of the tires. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. The design of front and rear suspension of a car may be different...





Hold Everything! - 1936 / 1937 Chevrolet New Cars Advertising / Educational Documentary - Ella73TV
On November 7, 1936 General Motors unveiled the all new 1937 range of Chevrolet automobiles. This short film, along with print and radio advertising, was part of the campaign designed to convince people to purchase one of the new models. . . Ella73TV - https://www.youtube.com/user/Ella73TV2 - A curated collection of old films, newsreels & archive footage spanning the 20th century.





Chevrolet Cars in 1933 - "Triumph of America" - Ella73TV
The Chevrolet Motor Company explains how auto manufacturing helped lead to America's economic success during in the 1930's . . Ella73TV - https://www.youtube.com/user/Ella73TV2 - A curated collection of old films, newsreels & archive footage spanning the 20th century.





2014 Chevrolet Corvette Stingray Assembly Plant
2014 Chevrolet Corvette Stingray Assembly Plant, Bowling Green, KY.





Oldsmobile Factory Tour in 1951 - General Motors Documentary - Ella73TV
Singers Lucille and Johnny, whose radio show is sponsored by Oldsmobile, are invited to visit the Oldsmobile factory to see why the cars are superior to other manufacturers. While touring the plant, Johnny becomes concerned that another visitor is a Martian spy dedicated to subverting Earth's autonomy! . . Ella73TV - https://www.youtube.com/user/Ella73TV2 - A curated collection of old films, newsreels & archive footage spanning the 20th century.





The American Road
Shows development of transportation in the United States during the first half of the 20th century, emphasizing growth of automobile industry, roads and highways.




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