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Blueprint 102 - Measuring 4g63 Crankshaft Endplay

4g63's are famous for hosing crankshaft thrust bearings. This video illustrates the process of how to check the thrust bearing clearance whether the motor's in the car or not. Of course in my case the motor's on a stand for this video. Lucky for me! In cases where the engine is still in the car, the same procedures can be used so long as the indicator is attached to the engine block. The plunger can be set up touching either the inside of the crank pulley or by removing the clutch cover plate and contacting the flywheel. What the thrust bearing does, is prevent the crankshaft from having lateral movement in the main bearings. If a crankshaft develops excessive movement here, clutch engagement and hydraulic problems will begin showing up, followed shortly thereafter by catastrophic failure of main bearings, rod bearings, connecting rod failures, oil pressure problems, or even broken blocks, crankshafts and rods in extreme cases. It's important that every 4g63 turbo engine is within spec on this measurement. When the crankshaft aggressively wears through the thrust bearing developing lateral play, this is called "crankwalk". On some block castings, replacing the bearings will NOT fix the problem. An engine block that is prone to crankwalking can not be fixed. The only option in these cases is to replace the shortblock and rotating assembly with new or used parts that are stronger than the one you've unfortunately encountered. For the 2g guys, the best option for repairing this problem is to remove the 7-bolt turbo shortblock your car came with and replace it with a 6-bolt from a 89-92.5 production date turbo DSM. Non-turbo blocks CAN be used; however, the block will not have oil squirters that aim towards the back of the pistons. That stream of oil aides lubrication to the wrist pins, cylinder bores, and somewhat cools the pistons. All good things on a turbo setup. Aside from that difference, there are no other differences between the non-turbo and turbo blocks. The pistons and thus the compression ratios are different, but that's it. Oil squirters can be machined into the main galleries of a non-turbo block, but it's more trouble than it's worth unless you can't find a turbo block. There are tons of differing theories about what causes crankwalk. Nearly all of them are plausible and logical arguments. I will not get into those debates in this video in order to focus on procedures for testing and replacement. Please feel free to google "crankwalk 4g63" and read the volumes of information available already. The arguments and gathered data are older than the Eclipse itself and in abundant supply on the internets. Magnus, RRE, VFAQ, and many other parts vendors have lengthy write-ups on their own research and development. The bottom line is that the 6-bolt shortblocks are LESS likely to suffer from this. Next time you see someone with a video that looks like it was shot with a potato asking "does this sound like crankwalk", you can send them this video. There's a reason for every noise, rather than focus on the sound, focus on eliminating the real problem. KNOW if it's out of spec.


 


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Blueprint 103 - Connecting Rods
Connecting rods are the crux of the engine. They're responsible for carrying the force of the explosions that occur in the combustion chamber and using it to turn the crankshaft. Oil clearance specifications of the "big end" and "small end" are crucial to maintaining consistent oil pressure. In this video we take 3 measurements: Rod Gap Rod Journal (also called Crank Pin) Diameters "Big End" Bore diameter Using the Journal diameters and the "Big End" Bores, you can calculate your oil clearances of each bearing. The process is illustrated here. Anyone rebuilding an engine who doesn't know its history should check all of these clearances whether or not they're re-using the rods. If the crank, bearings or connecting rods are going to be replaced, it's imperative that you measure the new parts as well to ensure they're in spec.





Blueprint 105 - Main Bearing Oil Clearances
In this episode we measure the bores for the crankshaft and calculate the oil clearances based off of information gathered in the previous video. If you subtract the diameter of the crankshaft from the bore diameter, you end up with your oil clearances. If this were an assembly with new parts, I would have also paid close attention to bearing measurements 45° off-centerline just to make sure the bearings aren't pinched. I would also have double-checked the clearances using Plastigage. But what I'm doing here is just getting baselines prior to machining. If you're doing a dry assembly like this, DO NOT ROTATE THE CRANKSHAFT. Without oil, there is nothing preventing it from being damaged.





Cylinder Head 204 - Porting & Polishing
This is a first-generation 1992 1.6L Hyundai Elantra small-combustion-chamber head. Thats what it is. It's a J1 Elantra cylinder head. Good luck finding another one like it. (read more)... In Cylinder Head 106 I talked about the mainstream porting theories as they are discussed. We looked at a cylinder head that I have thousands of dollars of professional work performed on, and a bone-stock second-generation head that I didn't port. In this video I just might do something you haven't seen done before. For some, that may be uncomfortable. The port and polish job I perform here is what I think will work best for my current build. This is not an extreme killer port job. What will be different here is where port textures are concerned, I will be following the advice of a reputable source that will remain un-named. You're free to port yours differently than I do in this video, and I give you that out, around the 20 minute marker. The Hyundai is far from being an ultimate-performance build. It's a $400 box of scraps with nothing but time invested. It's perfect for this video. My finished product WILL be an improvement over what I had. I don't yet have access to a flow bench. I still have an achievement to un-lock. As far as you should be concerned with the techniques I employ... without flow numbers there is no evidence of what this will do, but we will gather lots of info from dynp sessions and drag strip time slips. If I could test it on a flow bench, I would. There are MANY, and when I say many, I mean thousands of flame war mongering pirates floating around on rough seas with a hair trigger cannon finger itching to fire if you port a head any differently than what the herd mentality says to do while porting a cylinder head. I cover the herd mentality because it has merit. It's been tested. Tried and true. But I don't follow it to the letter of the law. I'm definitely not here to de-bunk it. I would port a cylinder head differently for each build based on how that engine was used. There's an extremely valid reason why relating to air speed. It's not the texture of a port that maximizes the effect of fuel atomization, but the velocity of the air running through an x or y sized valve. The driving factor in this is the piston speed. I'm not going to give you the technical information, but will refer you to information about the Lovell factor. There's a better description of this in the links below, and even a calculator to help you find your engine's sweet spot. Why the Lovell factor is important: https://www.highpowermedia.com/blog/3346/the-effect-of-valve-size Lovell gas factor calculator: http://www.rbracing-rsr.com/lovellgascalc.html Only people who have flow testing equipment know for sure what really works and have the capability to produce a perfectly-matched port job for the ultimate performance build. Those guys know the definition of ultimate, and THEY are floating below the water Aegis-class submarines ready to blow your comment up if you don't know what you're talking about. They don't care if you're an armchair mechanic or a herd of pirates. I will say, they're zoomed in pretty close on me right now, and I'm expecting to take a few hits. My work will be tested based on Dyno and drag strip performance, and the results will be posted here. Fortunately, those kinds of videos are a WHOLE LOT EASIER TO MAKE!!!





Blueprint 106 - Cylinder Bore Inspection
We're close to the end of the 100-level series. In this video I show you how to measure the cylinder bores using 2 different tools. I compare the results and illustrate what to look for to determine whether or not your engine is in-spec. The block I'm using is a 6-bolt turbo 4g63 from early '92. It has 150,000 miles and this video also serves as a testimony for the durability of Mitsubishi's cast-iron solid-decked Sirius I engines. This engine will be cut for a new set of pistons, so these measurements are needed to determine what size pistons I need to get. .030" is as far overbored as you should ever take a 4g63. Boring larger than that will take too much off the side clearances between the cylinder walls and result in compromised strength from hot spots. The only time you'll ever need to cut a bigger hole is when an imperfection prevents you from using the pistons you have, or if you're changing to a larger piston. If you cut the block to its service limit, you have no room to fix an imperfection should one develop... so it's best to cut as little as you can get away with. Boring a cylinder .020" over does not significantly increase its displacement.





Blueprint 104 - The Crankshaft
It's important to know what you've got even before dealing with the machinist. If you want to inspect a crankshaft, this is how you do it. I detail the process of removing the crank and what to measure. All specifications in this video are illustrated with a 6-bolt 4g63 turbo block, but are all actually the same for 7-bolt engines with the exception of the rod widths.





Blueprint 101 - Using Micrometers, Calipers, & Bore Gauges
THESE MICROMETERS ARE PROPS. They're cheap, easy-to-read, and they were defective straight out of the box. They couldn't be calibrated. The graduated sleeve was seized up and rusted to the bodies of each one. They're also not accurate enough to measure taper or runout on a bearing journal which is necessary if you're rebuilding an engine. If you're going to rebuild an engine and you're not already familiar with these kinds of tools, this video is required material. None of your measurements mean anything if they're not accurate. I illustrate the calibration and use of 3 major tools needed for taking measurements, and a brief demonstration of how they work. These are by no means the ONLY ways to use or calibrate these tools. This is simply the method I will employ to measure parts in later videos so this instruction doesn't distract from their intended messages. Even if you're familiar with these tools, you may find something useful here, or even be able to correct me and my rusty skills. When I can afford a $1200 set of Micrometers, I'll re-make this video.





4g63 Balance Shaft Elimination - bearing modification
This is the first part of a two part series about balance shaft elimination on 4g series engines. This video details the bearings, the other video will cover the front case modifications. I've already got a low-def video of the front case mods, and I plan to re-shoot that one in HD when I'm in the assembly phase. It's linked in the video. The balance shafts are designed to cancel out harmonic vibrations caused by combustion and the spinning rotating assembly. They may offer a greater degree of comfort to the driver and passengers, but with that comfort comes a price. Often, when a 4g63 timing belt gives up, it's because the balance shaft belt breaks or comes loose and takes the timing belt out with it. When that happens, it can total your pistons, valves, damage the crankshaft, wrist pins, timing belt tensioner and crank angle sensor. Basically, it can total your motor. The balance shafts also have a combined weigh over 10 lbs and both are driven off the timing belt making them additional and heavy rotating mass. If you've got a lightweight flywheel but still have balance shafts, you have your priorities mixed up. So here's what you do with the bearings. It's easy. You can do this at home. You CAN do it with the motor in the car, BUT DON'T. You must enjoy punishment to do this like that. The end result will slightly increase your oil pressure, but usually not enough to cause concern unless you have a full-circumference bearing turbo, ball bearing turbo--with your oil feed coming off the oil filter housing. The head feed would be better in that case because it's regulated at 15 PSI.





Blueprint 107 - piston-to-cylinder wall clearance
This video covers how easy it is to calculate piston-to-cylinder wall clearance. It's too easy. This is important because too loose of a gap and the rings won't seal properly. Too tight and the pistons will scuff the cylinder walls, ruining the bores. We've touched on thermal expansion several times now, and the reason it keeps coming up is because turbo engines achieve much higher cylinder pressures, and therefore generate more heat than a normally aspirated combustion chamber experiences. This affects the growth of the metal parts when they're at operating temperatures, so turbo pistons need more cylinder wall clearance to account for this. I will cover the ring grooves, compression and oil rings in a 200-series video while assembling this engine with new pistons. For now, these will just be saved for a rainy day. After all, I have a stock bore stock 4g63 engine in the Colt. Happy Thanksgiving!





7-Bolt Shortblock Failure - Full Diagnosis
If you are your own mechanic, there is no more important character trait worthy of development than the ability to own your mistakes. That's where the line is drawn between good mechanics and bad mechanics. It's not the failures but how they deal with them that measures their ability. In short, it's not easy to admit you did something wrong or were negligent. But if you don't own it and talk about it, it doesn't get fixed, and nothing positive can come from it. It was my quest to overcome my clutch issue that lead to the creation of a video. That video is the textbook perfect guide for how to correctly install a DSM transmission. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6bE_9sWtnSY&list=PL4B97C16D423317DD Crankwalk as described is caused by a casting defect. This was not a defect. This was preventable. A lot of people would find something like this and not tell anyone out of embarrassment. I'm not ashamed. It's my fault. I got good use out of this engine and it was tough enough to make it 48K miles since the last rebuild despite my abuse. I'm here to tell you if you bought a used car that's had its clutch replaced, or if you ever pay someone else to do it... make sure it has this bolt. It's stashed away between the starter and the transfer case, so it's hard to see. Make sure all of your bell housing bolts are torqued properly because fastener problems can destroy your shortblock, clutch and transmission. If your car fails because of a mis-aligned transmission, you have no reason to blame crankwalk. It wasn't until I bought my next AWD car that I discovered there was a smaller bolt on the other side of the block. I destroyed 3 transmissions in the GSX first. With the damage already done to my crankshaft, I then lost a shortblock. It's an ounce of prevention that's worth metric tons on your bank account. Grade 10 M8x60 bell housing bolt = MD706012. It gets 22-25'lbs of torque. Owning my mistake permits me to learn from it through con$equence$, and never repeat it. What good would it have done anyone else for me to learn this lesson and not share it? That's why I'm providing this video to all of you. Sharing it can perhaps help someone else avoid this costly mistake. This is the final chapter for my 7-bolt, and this book is going back on the shelf. Here are some valuable resources if you're trying to read bearing damage: http://www.enginebuildermag.com/Article/5150/csi_engine_bearings_when_good_ bearings_go_bad.aspx http://catalog.mahleclevite.com/bearing/ http://www.studebaker-info.org/tech/Bearings/CL77-3-402.pdf And of course, now that I've covered the complete oil system, transmission and driveshaft series of videos, you now have all the tools necessary to ensure your 4g63 lasts a very long time. Whether the casting defect exists?... or it's all caused by a bolt, or the harmonics, or whatever... Sure, crankwalk exists and it's horrible. But with the small amount of movement required for your crankshaft before it contacts the block isn't far enough to make your clutch drop to the floor when you turn. You'd be hearing woodpeckers and jackhammers on the crank long before that clutch pedal would fall to the floor. Some people are going to hate on me for saying that. That's fine. I believe all of the people who experienced the clutch pedal issues had fastener problems on their bell housing. DSMs get a bad reputation for this but we can change that. Crankwalk is never the cause of your engine failure. Crankwalk is always a symptom of the real problem. It's your disease that makes you deny it's your fault. You've got the 'itis. DSM-itis. Whenever you dig deeper, you'll discover what applied all of those thrust loads to your crankshaft to begin with, and it's not going to be a casting defect that moves your crank .101". Mine only went .014", but all of the same parts failed. PLEASE tell me in the comments if you find this bolt is missing from your car.





Crankshaft Refurbishing
Many of you have seen this one before. I apologize if bringing it back offends anyone. Domestickilla gave me a crankshaft, and it's a nice one that I want to clean up and use again. You'll be seeing a lot of it and because of this, this video deserves to be here. I fixed what I broke, and this was my experience. In this video Ballos Precision Machine demonstrates magnetic dye penetrant testing, crankshaft polishing and inspecting the balance of a "butchered" 4g63 6-bolt crankshaft.





Cylinder Head 105 - Valve Job Basics
Valves not sealing? Valves not bent? This is how you fix that problem. In this video I outline the basic valve job procedure. Cleaning the valves, cleaning the seats, cleaning the combustion chamber and lapping the valves in to make a better seal. Here I cover the process start-to-finish. It's the same exact process for pretty much all non-rotary combustion engines. It takes patience and perseverance to do this job, but anyone can do it. Reference your service manual for measurements and service limits. Everything else that's not in your service manual is in this video. I apologize for not having broken busted crap to work with in this video. It's more beneficial to all of you when bad fortune falls on me because it gets well documented, and many people watching these videos are looking for answers. If you have bent valves, you will discover it quickly once you chuck one up in the drill. You'll see the face of the valve wobble around while it spins. You'll see evidence of this damage on the valve seat. If it's bad, you may see damage on the valve guides in the form of cracks or missing pieces where the valve guides protrude through the head ports. Give all that stuff a good visual inspection. ...and if you doubt yourself, never hesitate to get a second opinion or consult a machine shop. They will have access to expensive tools that you wont find in your average gearhead's garage.





Checking piston to block deck clearance.MP4
How to check the distance between the top of the piston and the cylinder block deck. This is an important measurement to make when building a custom engine.





Block Preparation Part 1
Preparation for powder coating and Glyptal application. Audio track is an original performance by Rojo Del Chocolate. My block is being powder coated rather than painted. It's just something I do. The GSX had it on the last block so it's getting it again. Since the tools are so similar and the mess is the same, I'm going ahead and preparing it for the Glyptal application as well. These 2 coatings will require being baked separately. The powder coating is baked on at a hotter temperature than the Glyptal, so it's going first. The surface preparation instructions for Glyptal is as follows: Surface to be painted should be dry and free from dirt, wax, grease, rust and oil. Remove all grease and oil by washing surface with mineral spirits. Wipe or scrape off all loose dirt, rust or scale. The last sentence is what's covered in this video. The 2nd sentence happens next (although it's already degreased), and I'll get it back from powder coat with it in the state described in sentence #1 completed. If following these instructions to the letter of the law. Second and third opinions in... the main journal is fine. You'll notice that I didn't coat the main caps, or "suitcase handles". I'm not going to. You bang around on these installing and removing them, and I don't want to risk chipping them once they're coated. They're below the windage area, and there will also be an un-coated main bearing girdle down there. This video covered 25 hours of actual work. Yes, I kept changing into the same filthy clothes every shoot because I wanted it to look consistent. You have to take your time doing this kind of work, and be VERY VERY CAREFUL! If for some reason you're crazy enough to attempt what I do in this video, you do so at your own risk. This is an elective treatment that I've never done, but I am by no means the first person to do it. I'm learning about it just like the rest of you.





Turbo Elantra Bearing Failure Diagnosis
I had time to look at this thing up close. Go through the oil system, and check out all the bearings. Looks like another good study for my oil system series because it's the opposite problem that my GSX experienced. High oil pressure can be remedied a number of ways, but left unchecked can actually take a toll on your bearings. The way your engine bearings work, the parts they suspend are supported only by an oil film layer, and flow needs to be right in order for it to work as an actual bearing. If the oil supply is insufficient, then it loses the ability to suspend the part causing it to crash into the bearing surface. If oil flow is too great, friction is increased, the flow becomes turbulent, and the oil film doesn't form properly. High oil pressure can float and spin rod bearings, and that's worst-case scenario. I had several un-favorable conditions going on inside this engine and that makes it a little bit difficult to link what my engine experienced to any one singular thing. I think it's easier to look at it like some sort of perfect storm. From sub-standard parts for how the engine components would be used, to oil pressure, to part fatigue, to part history to abuse... this thing's got a little bit of everything working against it and that's why it's such a hilarious car. It was given to me with one condition. "See what this thing will do, and see how long it goes before it breaks." My take on it is, the parts are still less than ideal, and they've still got life left in them. It's worth fixing. These parts are worthless as a race motor, and normally I'd have junked 'em, but it's the Hyundai.





Calculate Your Compression Ratio
This is everything you need to do to calculate your compression ratio. No foolin'. Every equation and process demonstrated. Find all your variables. Know your exact compression ratio in every cylinder. This is how you do it. Just because your service manual says your car is 7.8:1 or 8.5:1 compression doesn't mean that it is. Whenever there are casting irregularities, variations in piston height, parts that have been machined, non-OE parts, or changes to your head gasket selection, your compression ratio WILL change. It's highly probable that you're only CLOSE to spec if you've never touched your engine at all since it was "born", and that it doesn't MATCH spec. Even if it did, how would you know? This. 5 variables. V1 Swept Volume V2 Deck Volume V3 Piston-to-deck clearance V4 Piston dish cc's V5 Head combustion chamber cc's The ratio math: V1+V2+V3+V4+V5 = volume of combustion chamber at BDC V2+V3+V4+V5 = volume of combustion chamber at TDC The ratio is... (V1+V2+V3+V4+V5) ÷ (V2+V3+V4+V5) : (V2+V3+V4+V5) ÷ (V2+V3+V4+V5) or BDC ÷ TDC : TDC ÷ TDC First you fill in the variables, then you calculate volumes, then you add the volumes, then you reduce the ratio (fraction). It's that easy. Here are your magic numbers: 0.7854 = Pi quartered to the ten thousandth 16.387 = number of cc's in a cubic inch. If you divide any number in cc's by 16.387 it gives you inches. If you multiply any number in cubic inches by 16.387 it gives you cc's. Quartering pi lets you use the calculation: BORE x BORE x STROKE x .7854 = volume of a cylinder instead of... π x (BORE ÷ 2) x (BORE ÷ 2) x STROKE = volume of a cylinder Either way is right. You get the same result if you calculate pi to the ten thousandth. While I apologize for all the math, no I don't. I'm really not sorry. You actually clicked here for it whether you realize it or not. This is ALL the math, the tests, and the whole process to calculate your cylinder volumes and compression individually even if you don't know any of your variables yet. All of my numbers are present for those who want to calculate out the last 3 cylinders out of curiosity just to see how it affects cylinder volumes and compression ratios from one cylinder to the next. Why would I do that for you? Why would I deprive you of that practice? Just assume that all 4 of my combustion chambers are 41.75 ml if you do this. Clicking like share and subscribe helps a channel grow. It also motivates me. Don't sweat the camera. It's enough to know that so many of you care about what I'm doing here. From the bottom of my atmospheric dump, I thank you all! This gift horse's teeth are all over the place, but he sometimes poops gold nuggets. PS: Use ATF for your piston dish volume tests, not alcohol. Of course it's better just to use the spec sheet included with your pistons... but not everyone gets that luxury. Water is just fine for head combustion chamber tests. Dry and re-oil all parts that water touches.





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